Fortified island’s strongholds

They were built in the 16th century for defense from pirates and the Turks particularly after the attack of the Turkish fleet on the islands Šipan, Lopud and Koločep in 1571 when islands were devastated and many islanders captured. Due to frequent attacks, the Dubrovnik government ordered three noblemen to go round the whole territory of the Republic and define the sites where the forts should be constructed for the people to shelter in case of attack. The bay of Lopud was defended from a fortress located at the foot of the highest peak (The Spanish fort). The Franciscan monastery on Lopud also had a fortified and defensive function. It controlled the entrance to the harbor and the passage of sea channels. Its defensive wall was built in 1516 and the quadrangular fortress with watching towers at each corner and vaulted interior was constructed in 1592. It could take the whole population of the island. It had the underground tunnel which led to the sea. Above the settlement of Lopud there is the Spanish fortress of St. Šimun from 1511. The church ‘’Our Lady of Šunj’’ had its defending tower in front of the entrance and at the estate of Miho Pracat there was also a defensive tower.

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